The kingdom of Singosari was founded in 1222 by a commoner by the name of Ken Arok, who managed to marry the beautiful princess Ken Dedes of Janggala after murdering her husband. Ken Arok later attacked neighbouring Kediri and thus united the two realms that were split by King Airlangga in 1049 as inheritance to his two sons.
Singosari succeeded in developing the rich agricultural hinterland along the Brantas river basin, as well as the lucrative maritime trade along the Java Sea. In 1275 and 1291 king Kartanegara attacked the maritime kingdom of Crivijaya in South Sumatra and gained suzerainty over the maritime trade in the Java and Sumatra seas. He was, however, killed by one of his vassals, Jayakatwang in 1293.
When the Chinese fleet sent by the irate Kublai Khan arrived on Java, unbeknown to them Kartanegara was already dead. Kertanegara’s son in law, Prince Vijaya, at first managed to persuade them to kill Jayakatwang, but then turned around to oust the Chinese fleet from Java.
Hereafter Vijaya founded the powerful Majapahit empire in 1294 whose palace is located to the north of Singosari at Porong. Majapahit’s influence would encompass present day Indonesia and spread even to Malaysia and Thailand.
Much of what we know today about Singosari comes from the 14th century Old Javanese text called the Pararaton (or the book of Kings).