Merapi volcano is one of the world’s most active and dangerous volcanoes. It contains an active lava dome, which regularly produces pyroclastic flows. It has been active for 10,000 years. This fire mountain remains one of the most active and dangerous volcanoes in the world. It can be seen from its name; Merapi from Javanese word ‘Meru’ means ‘Mountain’ and ‘Api’ means ‘fire’. The internally giant smoking Mount Merapi is one of the active volcanoes that found in Indonesia. It is presenting its peaceful and sleepy dense forest.
Merapi, a steep stratovolcano north of Central Java’s capital Yogyakarta, is Indonesia’s most active volcano. It erupts on average every 5-10 years and is feared for its deadly pyroclastic flows – avalanches of hot rocks and gas that are generated when parts of new lava domes constructed during eruptions in the summit crater collapse and slide down the mountain’s steep flanks. The name “Merapi” from old Javanese language means “the one making fire” is a popular name for volcanoes: another volcano with the same name Merapi is in the Ijen Massif in East Java and similarly called volcano “Marapi” lies on Sumatra Island.
Merapi dominates the landscape immediately north of the city of Yogyakarta in one of the world’s most densely populated areas. Merapi is the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. The steep-sided modern Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive activity, was constructed to the SW of an arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the volcano’s western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities during historical time. Since 1953, activity has been characterized by extrusion of lava into the summit crater, with periodic lava dome collapse and nuée ardente formation. Summit lava dome growth has continued since the 1969 gas explosion. It is monitored from the Merapi Volcano Observatory (MVO) in Yogyakarta.
Beyond this, there lies a vast deserted land with its deep and steep valley spread out among the mountain hills where sibilant pines and wild grass make out the dominating vegetation, all presents a very exciting panorama. Merapi is located about 30 km north of Yogyakarta, a city with a population of 500,000. It is tall (2.8 km or 1.7 miles high) and has steep slopes. The top of the volcano sometimes has a normal crater, but usually a broad mound of pasty lava (called a dome) fills the crater. The dome plugs up the volcano, making it difficult for other lava and ash to escape. A broad gouge funnels lava and ash flows from the top of Merapi to the south slopes of the volcano.
During its resting time of volcanic activities, it will enable those who have much interest in mountaineering to have fun and to make them more acquainted with the flora of its tropical rain forest. From the observation post located on Plawangan hill that can be reached through the forest resort of Kaliurang, we will see the incredible sights of molten rocks oozing over the rim, sometimes accompanied with hot lava pouring out regularly and leaving a long trail of smoke.
Sumber : http://www.indonesia-tourism.com/yogyakarta/merapi-volcanoe.html